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It is widely accepted that electrical vehicles (EVs) for goods and people have a crucial role to play in energy transition towards carbon neutrality. Despite significant progress in recent decades, challenges remain in charging times of EV batteries and range anxiety of drivers, compared with vehicles powered by liquid fuels which are several times more energy dense than Li-ion batteries.
This perspective article examines two solutions that have the potential to address the challenges: the conversion of diverse forms of wasted energy into electricity (e.g. vibration) and the reduction of battery power for the provision of ancillary services (e.g. cabin thermal comfort).